Turkey Resilient Landscape Integration Project (TULIP)
TULIP will support the efforts of Turkey in addressing the multitude of environmental and socio-economic challenges facing the Bolaman basin in the Eastern Black Sea and the Cekerek basin in Central Anatolia while enhancing the livelihood security and resilience of local communities against the risks and impacts of climate-induced landslides, flooding, and drought.
The project will adopt an integrated landscape management (ILM) approach in the targeted basins to achieve these objectives.
ILM approach benefit from that
. Field, farm and forest practices are designed to contribute to multiple objectives, including human well-being, food and fiber production, climate change mitigation, and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services;
. Shared or agreed management objectives that encompass multiple benefits (the full range of goods and services needed) from the landscape;
. Ecological, social, and economic interactions among different parts of the landscape are managed to realize positive synergies among interests and actors or to mitigate negative trade-offs;
. Collaborative, community-engaged processes for dialogue, planning, negotiating and monitoring decisions are in place;
. Markets and public policies are shaped to achieve the diverse set of landscape objectives and institutional requirements.
Therefore, Field-level innovations began to be implemented at landscape scale, while conservation-oriented landscape approaches began to incorporate production elements more systematically. This will bring a development vision for the integration of agricultural, environmental and rural livelihood outcomes for a better and livable rural areas.
The project development objective is to strengthen integrated landscape management and increase access to improved livelihood opportunities and resilient infrastructure for rural communities in targeted areas of Turkey.
Within this context, building on Turkey and the Bank’s previous experience in watershed rehabilitation, this project will design a participatory planning process to consider inputs from different stakeholder groups, allowing for the coordination and integration of solutions among various government agencies, and between government and local stakeholders.
The project will also deploy integrated green and gray infrastructure solutions as both short-term and long-term responses to mitigate the risks of landslides, floods, and drought, and enhance climate resilience of the local population and ecosystems.
Using Bolaman and Cekerek Basins as proof of concept, the project will set in motion a national program for landscape resilience.
The investments under this component will include a variety of green and gray infrastructure measures, including sustainable land management and livelihoods diversification by the General Directorate of Forestry (OGM) and the General Directorate of Agricultural Reform (TRGM); and resilient infrastructure systems for drinking water supply, irrigation, protection against floods and landslides, and road rehabilitation by the State Hydraulic Works (DSI) and the General Directorate of Highways (KGM). The integration among the different measures will be established through the development of Integrated Landscape Management Plans (ILMP) which will be prepared during the first year of project implementation, building on the Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) developed for each basin. This component will include four parts under two sub-components, implemented by OGM, TRGM, DSI, and KGM, respectively.
The Project also include a technical assistance programme for scaling-up the project approach to other priority areas and developing a national strategy or plan for landscape resilience and sustainable recovery, and the necessary institutional capacity building for implementing such strategy/plan; as well as all related project management activities, including monitoring and evaluation and environmental and social risk management.
The Project`s main investment component targets the investments in Resilient Landscape Integration in targeted areas in Bolaman and Cekerek Basins.
Subcomponent 1.1: Green infrastructure and sustainable livelihoods. The objective of this subcomponent is to restore and maintain the health, function, and productivity of critical ecosystems and promote sustainable land uses within the watershed to improve the sustainability of the natural resource base, enhance the livelihood security of local communities, and build resilience against climate-induced hazards.
This sub-component will finance a menu of investments which will be planned in a participatory way with targeted communities through the development of a selected number of priority Microcatchment Plans (MCP) in each respective basin identified in its ILMP. Investments will include a variety of green infrastructure (GI) measures, sustainable and climate-smart agricultural practices, and livelihood diversification activities implemented by OGM and TRGM through their Regional and Provincial offices.
Forests play a key role in protecting soil cover and regulating water. GI will improve the resilience and strengthen the functions of ecosystems and their services and produce long-term climate adaptation and mitigation co-benefits such as soil, water and sediment retention, buffering extreme flood events, and carbon sequestration. GI will also protect critical habitats to enhance biodiversity and provide economic benefits through nature-based tourism and circular economy related activities such as improved manure management. Increasing forest cover and improving forest health will help prevent soil erosion and landslides and reduce the impacts of floods. Income generation and livelihood diversification for the rural poor will enhance their livelihood security and welfare while reducing the pressure on the forest ecosystems upon which these communities traditionally depend. This will also contribute to reversing the current trend of outward migration of the local population. This subcomponent will include two parts, implemented by OGM and TGRM respectively.
(a) Forest landscapes and livelihoods upstream. This sub-component will be implemented by OGM. It aims to enhance the long-term livelihood security for upland forest communities in the targeted basins by supporting the rehabilitation, protection, and sustainable management of ecosystems upstream to optimize their capacity to provide ecosystem services in sediment retention, soil protection, and water regulation which are critical to reducing the risk, likelihood, and magnitude of downstream flooding, soil erosion, landslides, and drought, as well as for supporting the livelihoods of communities in these basins. Subproject typologies include:
(i) Small-scale erosion, landslide, and flood control works upstream include technical services and small-scale works such as wire mesh fences, steel debris barriers, and check dams to stabilize slopes, limit sediment transport, and reduce the velocity and quantity of runoff downstream from streams, creeks, and gullies upstream. These small-scale measures will help reduce peak flow and flooding downstream and the amount of sediments transported to the main streams as a result of landslides and scouring in gullies and streams. This sub-project typology also includes measures such as levees, retaining walls, and gabion retaining walls to protect settlements and agricultural areas upstream from damages caused by localized flooding and landslides.
(ii) Forest rehabilitation and sustainable management activities aim at restoring and maintaining the health and functionality of basin forests to deliver critical ecosystem services, including soil cover protection, erosion prevention, water retention and regulation, climate adaptation (i.e., buffering against floods and extreme events) and mitigation (i.e., carbon sequestration). Activities under this subproject typology include afforestation, restoration of degraded forests, sustainable management of young forests, establishment of nurseries and other facilities, as well as purchase of machineries and equipment for sapling production and silviculture activities, maintenance of small forest roads for stand improvements, and adoption of alternatives to fuelwood for cooking and heating (i.e., solar energy heating systems and roofing and insulation materials).
(iii) Forest pasture rehabilitation and sustainable management activities aim at improving the health, carrying capacity, and productivity of the pastures in and adjacent to forest areas upstream to support forest communities’ livestock farming in a productive and sustainable way. Healthy pastures will also help minimize soil erosion, improve water retention upstream, and reduce runoff downstream. These objectives will be accomplished through the restoration of degraded pasture lands, grazing management, and physical investments to support livestock welfare and productivity, including sheds and livestock drinking water systems.
(iv) Income generation and livelihood diversification for forest villages aims at creating new income-generating opportunities to directly enhance the livelihood security for poor forest communities and reduce the pressure on forest ecosystems upon which these communities traditionally depend. Participating beneficiaries will be offered options from a menu of income-generating activities on a cost-sharing basis (small grants), including cultivation of high value products such as truffle, high yield and low investment Non-Timber Forest Products such as mushroom and medicinal and herbal plants, as well as fruit tree planting, beekeeping, high yield cattle breeding and farming, and traditional craft production. This subproject typology will also finance greenhouses to allow for year-round climate smart horticulture on limited land parcels, and facilities for ecotourism and recreational areas to attract more nature-based tourists to the basins. The creation of livelihood opportunities also aims at reversing the current trend of outward migration among rural populations to retain human and social capital for future growth. Invesments will be channeled through a targeting strategy to maximize poverty, gender, and other selection criteria to ensure sustainability.
(b) Sustainable and climate-smart agriculture and value chains. This sub-component will be implemented by TRGM. It aims to improve livelihood opportunities for rural communities through sustainable and climate-smart agricultural practices and strengthening value chains in targeted basins. Diversifying livelihoods and promoting sustainable and climate-smart agricultural production will help protect the natural resources base, improve farm productivity, and strengthen these communities’ socio-economic resilience. Agricultural value chain investments will help boost the competitiveness and value of local products obtained by local Producer Organizations. This sub-component will include the following menu of investments:
(i) Sustainable and climate-smart agricultural practices aim at reducing soil erosion, conserving water, and enhancing nutrient capture to improve farm productivity and minimize harmful agricultural runoff. Activities will be specific to each basin based on sustainability and climate-smart criteria and will include terracing for hazelnut gardens, rainwater harvesting, organic farming, and promoting Good Agricultural Practices, among others. The project will not implement such measures on a massive scale; rather, it will aim at a demonstrative effect to create the conditions for encouraging land users themselves to adopt more productive and protective land management systems.
(ii) Pasture rehabilitation and sustainable management outside forest lands activities aim at improving the health, carrying capacity, and productivity of pasture lands to support sustainable livestock production for rural communities. Activities under this subproject typology will include restoration of degraded pasture lands, grazing management, and physical investments to support livestock welfare and productivity, including animal sheds with feed storage, caregiver houses, and livestock drinking water systems.
(iii) Agricultural diversification for non-forest villages will help poor rural communities outside forest areas to diversify and improve their livelihoods through a menu of alternative income-generation activities. These will include a variety of animal husbandry activities including high-yield cattle and poultry breeding and farming; alternative high-end crop production such as kiwi, persimmon and mushrooms; beekeeping and diversification of apicultural products, among others. Activities will be closely coordinated with OGM during the development of the MCPs in each basin to ensure complementarity and implemented though a common Grants Manual.
(iv) Sustainable agricultural value chains aim at enhancing the productivity, competitiveness, and value of agricultural products in the targeted basins. These objectives will be accomplished through investments in selected value chains to reduce the cost of production inputs (i.e., mushroom compost production facilities), improve processing efficiency, enhance hygienic standards, extend product life and reduce post-harvest loss (i.e., milk collection and processing centers, slaughter houses, fruit and vegetables processing facilities, cold storage, etc.), and branding and marketing activities to reach new markets and increase the value of local products for Producer Organizations.
Subcomponent 1.2: Resilient gray infrastructure. The objective of this subcomponent is to increase access to climate and disaster resilient infrastructure systems for protection against climate-related risks such as landslides and floods, provision of drinking and irrigation water supply, and mobility for local communities. Due to the pressing problems of flooding, landslides, lack of access to safe drinking water, and drought in both basins, infrastructure solutions are urgently needed to address these problems. The locations of these investments will be determined based on flood and landslide risk mapping and other relevant modeling and analysis and assessed through subproject-specific feasibility studies and environmental and social assessments.
Engineering designs will incorporate resilience measures through specific guidelines that were developed for the subproject typologies to be implemented based on basin-wide vulnerability assessments carried out during project preparation. GI will be used to complement the gray infrastructure and optimize the functionality, cost-effectiveness, and resilience of the integrated natural and built system. This subcomponent will include two parts, implemented by DSI and KGM respectively.
(a) Resilient infrastructure for water security. This subcomponent will be implemented by DSI. It aims to provide local communities with resilient infrastructure systems for supplying drinking and irrigation water sources and protecting against climate-related and natural disasters, such as floods and landslides. The menu of investments under this sub-component includes the following subproject typologies:
(i) Dams and multipurpose reservoirs will store, protect, and supply drinking water from surface water sources. The reservoirs will contribute to increasing groundwater reserves through increased aquifer recharge and reduced groundwater extraction. Depending on the locations, some of the reservoirs will also have multiple purposes such as stream flow control functions to prevent and minimize flooding incidents in summers and springs.
(ii) Drinking water infrastructure systems will aim to solve the challenges of providing clean and safe drinking water for the population in targeted basins. The investment will finance water treatment plants and auxiliary facilities, including main transmission lines and storage tanks, to pump, transport, store, treat, and deliver safe drinking water. Water will be supplied from the multipurpose reservoirs.
(iii) Irrigation works, including small irrigation ponds and irrigation supply systems, will provide water to support agricultural activities efficiently and cost-effectively in targeted basins with drought problems.
(iv) Flood and sedimentation control structures downstream will prevent and mitigate the impacts of heavy rainfalls, floods, and landslides that have caused the loss of lives and significant damages to local infrastructure and properties during heavy rainfall events. Flood and sedimentation control structures will include levees, retaining walls, embankments, impoundment, culverts, bridges, concrete channels, grouted riprap, and stream bed rehabilitation. These structures will be built in locations with high risks of flooding as determined by hydrological modeling and flood risk mapping.
(b) Resilient mobility. This sub-component will be implemented by KGM. It aims at enhancing the resilience of the rural road systems in targeted basins against climate and disaster risks and to improve local communities’ mobility and access to markets. In the Bolaman basin for example, heavy precipitation, flooding, landslides, and rockslides have deteriorated the rural road network, causing traffic disruption, posing safety issues, and impeding the flow of goods and people. Improving the conditions and functionality of the road systems in these basins will facilitate year-round labor mobility and transportation of agricultural goods, allowing products to reach more markets and to reduce spoilage and wastage. Functional road systems will also encourage tourist inflows and improve local populations’ mobility, especially those living in isolated settlements. This sub-component will include the following investment typologies:
(i) Resilient rural road rehabilitation will include widening of the roads to standard levels (approximately 3 meters) and resurfacing using hot mix bituminous asphaltic concrete (BSK), a waterproof coasting protective layer, to fill in existing cracks and fix raveled surfaces in the existing road systems. BSK will also protect the underlying pavement and increase skid resistance to improve traffic safety. The rehabilitation will also incorporate other site-specific measures, such as runoff drainage and protective walls to strengthen the existing road’s resilience against climate-related and disaster risks.
(ii) Resilient rural road construction aims to improve the connectivity and resilience of the road system by adding targeted missing segments when necessary to improve the safety, market access and mobility of the local population. New road design will also incorporate suitable climate and disaster-resilient measures.
Component 2: Institutional Framework, Project Management, and Sustainability. The objective of this component is to strengthen the capacities and coordination among Implementing Agencies to ensure not only effective and efficient project implementation, but also to support the institutional structures and processes that need to be established in a sustainable way to support integrated landscape planning and management in both the project area and elsewhere. Implementation of this component will be under the overall responsibility of OGM and will include the following two sub-components:
Sub-component 2.1: Implementation Framework for Integrated Landscape Management. This sub-component will finance technical assistance activities to support the development of a national strategy, plan, or program for landscape resilience and sustainable recovery post-COVID-19 for vulnerable rural areas, and the necessary institutional framework and capacity building to support the implementation of such strategy/plan/program.
Activities under this component will include: (i) support for the establishment of the implementation framework for Integrated Landscape Management, including the development and adoption of a national strategy/program for landscape resilience and sustainable recovery in vulnerable rural areas and associated mechanism for institutional coordination and collaboration; (ii) technical assistance for the development of tools to support the implementation of the strategy for landscape resilience, including integrated planning tools at the landscape level (ILMPs, MCPs) for a number of priority basins and an integrated data platform for monitoring and evaluating their implementation; (iii) capacity building and awareness raising for relevant institutions, local authorities, and rural communities for the application of the integrated landscape management approach.
Sub-component 2.2: Project management and sustainability. Activities under this sub-component will include: (i) project management support, including capacity building to strengthen the technical, fiduciary, environment, and social capacities of Implementing Agencies and their Project Implementation Units (PIUs); (ii) support for environmental and social risk management, including preparation of site-specific Environmental and Social instruments, grievance redress, citizen engagement, and communications; and (iii) monitoring and evaluation.